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- Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan
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The genetic evaluations showed Zita to symptoms nausea trusted 150 mg rulide have a known syndrome: she had received two chromosomes 14 from her mother instead of one from her mother and one from her dad treatment herniated disc order rulide online from canada. At 7 years of age medications that cause hyponatremia rulide 150mg line, Zita was 11 centimetres shorter than on average her peers were medications requiring central line buy rulide 150mg, while her parents were in fact quite tall. She had developed some overweight, something that was known to occur in this syndrome. Zita had diffculties with her short stature, it hindered her to participate in certain activities. She and her class mates would go to a theme park, and Zita wondered: Will I be tall enough to enter the attractions Treatment with growth hormone to increase her height and improve her body composition was considered by her paediatrician. She wondered: Is there any evidence available that in this syndrome growth hormone would increase Zita’s height and improve her body proportions In this thesis, I aim to focus on each of these questions that arise when dealing with children with growth disorders like Zita – from referral, diagnostic workup and genetic analysis to diagnosis, treatment and quality of life. General Introduction and Thesis Outline 11 Human Growth 1 the process of human growth starts at conception and ends when adult height has been reached. Every fetus has a genetically determined growth potential and its growth is further infuenced by fetal, maternal and placental factors . Fetal growth is defned as the increase in mass that occurs towards the end of the frst trimester and birth . From the third trimester of pregnancy, increase in body size is among other things achieved by linear growth, determined by the rate of growth plate chondrogenesis, and by increase of essential body stores, resulting in a nearly 20% increase in fat mass [2, 3]. Growth plate chondrogenesis plays an important role in height gain from the end of pregnancy to adolescence: decreased chondrogenesis causes short stature and increased chondrogenesis results in tall stature. Many factors, such as nutritional, genetic, paracrine and endocrine factors, regulate this process . Furthermore, other disorders of the bone, like abnormal breakdown or remodelling of bone tissue, bone malformations and deformations can contribute to disturbed growth. Regarding tall stature, disorders consist of dysmorphic syndromes, growth hormone overproduction, hyperinsulinism, familial glucocorticoid defciency, hyperthyroidism, other endocrine disorders and idiopathic tall stature . For some of these disorders, including certain dysmorphic syndromes and idiopathic short and tall stature, the mechanism for dysregulation of the growth plate remains unknown . Growth Monitoring Growth failure, which includes short stature, growth retardation or short stature in comparison to target height, is considered an early sign of various underlying pathological conditions and forms a common reason for referral to specialist paediatric care . The incidence of pathological causes of growth failure in children aged below 10 years varies between 3 and 9. For adolescents with growth failure, the incidence of detectable disorders has been reported markedly lower, 1. Overgrowth or tall 12 General Introduction and Thesis Outline stature on the other hand is a less common reason for referral and underlying pathology is seen in this group of patients as well, but is very rare . The most common genetic causes of overgrowth, such as Fragile X syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome and Sotos syndrome show incidences of <<0. In order to detect pathological causes of disturbed growth in children, an effcient system for growth monitoring and a diagnostic workup with a high sensitivity and specifcity is essential. Despite similarities in clinical presentation and etiology of growth disorders, national guidelines for screening and diagnostic workup in children and adolescents with growth failure or overgrowth vary widely [7, 18-23]. In Part 1 of the thesis we evaluate various national guidelines for growth monitoring and diagnostic workup in children and adolescents with growth failure and overgrowth. Chapter 2 describes a study evaluating the Dutch, Finnish and British screening guidelines in a cohort of children with growth failure. In Chapter 3 we present a study investigating the etiology, the role of puberty and the most useful criteria for diagnostic workup in a cohort of adolescents with growth failure. The study in Chapter 4 explores diagnostic workup and follow-up in children with tall stature and we present a simplifed diagnostic algorithm for use in clinical practice. Genetic Analysis Part of the diagnostic workup in growth disorders includes genetic analysis. Although over 400 loci showed to contribute to variation of normal stature, effect sizes per loci are small and these studies have provided limited insight into pathological causes of growth failure . The technical abilities to examine genetic disorders have increased dramatically in the past few years. For children with growth disorders it has become clear that this genetic technology may greatly improve and accelerate the diagnostic process, at a lower cost. Genome-wide methylation arrays allowed assessment of methylation patterns across the entire genome . Presumably, 30-50% of the variation in weight at birth can be explained by genetic causes, which includes chromosome imbalances, sequence variants and epigenetic disturbances. Furthermore, numerous studies on epigenetic infuences, especially methylation disturbances, have been performed [35-42]. Despite this, the (dys)regulation of prenatal growth is still only understood to a limited extent. Besides increasing growth and fnal height, treatment can be benefcial for psychosocial and cognitive functioning, body composition and muscle strength. Tall stature is considered a positive phenomenon in contrast to short stature, even in very young children . Negative stereotypes regarding short stature constitute a potential source of psychosocial stress for the affected child. Therefore, an important aim of growth hormone therapy besides increasing height, is psychological improvement of short individuals . Growth monitoring: a survey of of height-screening programmes during the primary current practices of primary care paediatricians in school years: a systematic review. Defning the role of common Poor growth in school entrants as an index of variation in the genomic and biological architecture organic disease: the Wessex growth study. Marfan syndrome: from plasma protein A2 cause short stature due to low molecular pathogenesis to clinical treatment. Child and adolescent ated with severe short stature, gonadal failure, and growth disorders-an overview. Oxford Medical Datagrowth and response to growth hormone treatment bases: London Dysmorphology and Dysmorphology in children with growth hormone defciency and Photo Library Version 3. General Introduction and Thesis Outline 17 part i Growth Monitoring ch ap ter 2 Application of the Dutch, Finnish and British Screening Guidelines in a Cohort of Children with Growth Failure Susanne E. Plotz Hormone Research in Paediatrics 2015;84(6):376-82 Abstract Aims To evaluate three guidelines for selecting short children for diagnostic workup in a general pediatric clinic. A Dutch reference sample (n = 958) was used for calculating population specifcity. When adding recent growth defection to the Dutch guideline, sensitivity increased to 87%, but specifcity decreased markedly (to 87%). Growth defection irrespective of height is an important sign of acquired growth disorders, but its specifcity is too low for population screening. In several countries, a system of growth monitoring is established in primary health care, with referral to secondary and/or tertiary care of patients suspected for a pathological cause . Criteria for growth monitoring and diagnostic 2 workup should ideally have a high sensitivity and specifcity. Despite similarities in the clinical presentation and etiology of growth failure in various parts of the world, national guidelines for the screening and diagnostic approach vary considerably [2,3]. The Dutch guideline is based on a set of 4 criteria which show a high sensitivity (7686%) for detecting pathological causes of growth failure in children aged 3. It has subsequently been suggested to add 2 additional criteria in primary health care . A similar set of auxological criteria was reported by a Finnish group, showing a sensitivity of 97% in screening for Turner syndrome . The aim of our study was to analyze the sensitivity and specifcity of these three guidelines in a pediatric clinic examining children that were referred for growth failure. Excluded were (1) adopted children, (2) children of other ethnicities and (3) children with missing medical records. Screening Guidelines in Children with Growth Failure 23 Diagnostic Workup At our growth clinic, all referred patients underwent a standardized diagnostic workup which includes an evaluation of the medical and family history, detailed auxological measurements, bone age assessment and a physical examination with special attention to dysmorphisms and body disproportions. A pediatrician with special training in 2 endocrinology and growth disorders decided whether a further diagnostic workup was indicated, which included (if indicated) further referral to a pediatric endocrinologist or clinical geneticist.
The program has been tailored to treatment for 6mm kidney stone order 150mg rulide overnight delivery help children cope with Hurricane Katrina and has been implemented in Washington symptoms type 2 diabetes purchase rulide with visa, Jefferson symptoms 8 days post 5 day transfer discount 150 mg rulide overnight delivery, East Baton Rouge chapter 9 medications that affect coagulation purchase 150mg rulide, and Orleans Parishes in Louisiana and Hancock, Jackson, and Harrison Counties in Mississippi. It is recommended that someone with previous experience working with children and with previous counseling, social work, or clinical experience conduct the sessions. Implementation guidelines must be followed carefully to assure the effectiveness of the program and to avoid any negative impact on the participants or facilitators. Save the Children also has informational packets with tip sheets for Parents, Teachers, Administrators, and Teens, as well as a compilation of cooperative games useful for summer camps and schools that are unable to implement a more structured psychosocial program. The Resiliency and Skills Building workshops are not a substitute for treatment of moderate to severe psychological symptoms. This program is also intended to inform students of the mental health services available at their school and to introduce them to therapists. Intended Population: this program has been developed for use with high school students. Format: the five 35-minute sessions are integrated into the health class curriculum and given for five consecutive days in a classroom setting (25 to 35 students). It is recommended that a team of two professionals, both with clinical mental health training, deliver these sessions. It has provided an estimated 7,500 children and their families in the downtown New York City public schools a range of mental health services. The workshops have undergone two years of evaluation using data on 109 students, of whom 46 percent are Hispanic, 21 percent African-American, 17 percent Asian, 14 percent self-described as biracial, and 2 percent American Indian/Alaskan Native descent. Data for year 1 has shown that the program decreased student anxiety levels and suspension rates. Data for year 2 and for years 1 and 2 combined is currently being prepared for publication. Materials: the manual, Resilience and Skill Building: A Manual to Manage Anger and Increase Interpersonal Skills, and its accompanying packet of Supplemental Materials (homework, handouts, checklists) are available. Contents verified and modified from phone interviews with developers in December 2005 and updated in June 2006. The program is appropriate for a variety of crisis situations, such as natural disasters, death of a classmate or teacher or administrator, school closings, or violence in the school or community. The main purpose of Silver Linings is to provide a safe place among a caring group of adults and peers for students to express and explore feelings such as anger, sadness, and guilt, while participating in physical activities. Silver Linings is also intended to provide instruction in coping strategies, in particular positive reappraisal. Intended Population: Silver Linings is available for use for three age groups: 5-8, 9-12, and adolescents. Rainbows is now creating and piloting both a pre-school and an adult version of Silver Linings. Format: Silver Linings consists of six 30to 45-minute group sessions that may be held over a period of two to six weeks with at least a day in between each session. Silver Linings can be facilitated by anyone who works regularly with children, including coaches, teachers, counselors, and youth group leaders. Each of the six sessions has a theme, or focus: feelings, changes, angry and fear, endings and beginnings, weathering the storms, and goal-setting. There is the option to use the creative activities to develop an expandable, “large-group” display in a public setting. Rainbows is already expanding these sessions by adding support group sessions specific to Katrina and/or hurricanes. Implementation: Silver Linings began as a pilot in Gary, Indiana, to help people displaced by flooding and living in a shelter to deal with the changes in their lives and the loss of possessions. Silver Linings was also implemented successfully with flooded communities along the Mississippi River and with a group of artists working with troubled students in Los Angeles. After the events of September 11, 2001, Rainbows produced a special edition 2001 Silver Linings, and donated materials and training to New York City and New Jersey schools. Since then, Silver Linings has proven successful in a variety of settings and crisis situations, including with children from families of deployed soldiers in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, and in communities where there has been violent or sudden deaths due to accidents. Rainbows has sent 300 shipments of Silver Linings materials to assist hurricane victims in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana and worked closely with the Louisiana and Mississippi Counseling Associations to identify schools where materials are needed. Silver Linings has not yet been evaluated but is actively collecting preand post-program information on participants and evaluations by facilitators. Training: Silver Linings can be facilitated by anyone who works regularly with children, including coaches, teachers, counselors, and youth group leaders. Materials: There are three editions of Silver Linings, for ages 5 to 8, 9 to 13, and for adolescents. Each edition includes an instructor manual and a reproducible participant booklet. Also included is a coloring story booklet, Ferdinand the Eagle, which focuses on rebuilding and generating hope. Rainbows received an Allianz Group grant for responding to hurricanes Katrina and Rita and thus may be able to provide materials free of charge. For more information: Contact Laurie Olbrisch (800-266-3206 x 12, laurie@rainbows. The program uses an eclectic mix of intervention techniques to help children understand death, discuss and answer questions about death, and follow Dr. Worden’s “four tasks of mourning”: accept the reality of the loss, experience the pain of grief, adjust to living without the deceased, and emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life. Intended Population: the Loss and Bereavement Program is used with children, ages 6 through to adolescence, who have experienced the death of a parent, caregiver, or other significant family member or friend and is experiencing simple or complicated bereavement. The Loss and Bereavement Program can be used for recent losses as well as for longer term recovery. The program has been successfully used with inner-city, Hispanic, and African-American populations. Format: the program consists of 12 group sessions, 60 to 90 minutes in length, that meet weekly along with one or two joint sessions with the surviving parent or caregiver and the child. It is recommended that sessions be led by someone with clinical mental health training. For more Information: Contact the Loss and Bereavement Program office (212-632-4692) or Dr. Nina Koh, program director (212-632-4492 or 212-795-9888) of the Jewish Board of Family and Children’s Services ( Students identified as in need of additional, individual support services are referred to counselors and other mental health personnel. Format: the program consists of six classroom units, each containing four classroom sessions, approximately 30 minutes in length, for a total of 24 sessions. The entire program can be presented in six weeks, but it should be continued and reinforced throughout the school year with supplemental booster activities. Brown Story, Pledge for Peace, Trying your best, Self-Control, Thinking and Problem Solving, and Cooperation. The program was developed and implemented in four Boston public elementary schools, reaching 1342 students. An evaluation for the Department of Education was conducted for three of the four schools in 2004 by the Harvard School of Public Health. Three of the schools were approximately 75 percent African American with a range of 8 to 16 percent Hispanic students. The fourth school was 43 percent Hispanic, 34 percent white, 10 percent African American and 13 percent Asian. Preand post-program surveys conducted in grades 3-5 in three intervention schools showed reductions in self-reported victimization (boys 28-37 percent, girls 30-39 percent) and self-reported mild to severe depression (boys 25 to 40 percent, girls 14 to 40 percent). Training: Teachers and administrators participate in a day-long training that consists of information about grief and loss, how symptoms of grief and trauma can manifest themselves behaviorally, and how grief and trauma have an impact on academic achievement. Materials: Separate teacher’s and student’s manuals for grades K to 1, 2 to 3, and 4 to 5 (ProthrowStith, Chery, Oliver, Feldman, Chery, & Shamis, 2005) are available through Research Press Publishers, rp@researchpress. Contents adapted from write-up provided by developer and confirmed with developers in July 2006. The main purpose of Rainbows is to provide a loving, safe atmosphere in which participants know someone cares for them and is willing to listen to them.
Retained carbon dioxide combines with water to medications drugs prescription drugs buy rulide pills in toronto form carbonic acid symptoms tuberculosis buy rulide 150mg otc, which dissociates to symptoms testicular cancer order rulide without prescription release free hydrogen and bicarbonate ions moroccanoil treatment effective rulide 150 mg. The hemoglobin picks up hydrogen ions and carbon dioxide and removes them from the serum. Understanding acid-base disorders this chart provides an overview of selected acid-base disorders. As the hydrogen ion concentration overwhelms compensatory mechanisms, hydrogen ions move into the cells and potassium ions move out. Respiratory alkalosis As pulmonary ventilation increases, excessive carbon dioxide is exhaled. Resulting hypocapnia leads to reduction of carbonic acid, excretion of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions, and rising serum pH. Against rising pH, the hydrogen-potassium buffer system pulls hydrogen ions out of cells and into blood in exchange for potassium ions. Hydrogen ions entering blood combine with bicarbonate ions to form carbonic acid, and pH falls. Hypocapnia causes an increase in heart rate, cerebral vasoconstriction, and decreased cerebral blood flow. Severe alkalosis inhibits calcium ionization, increasing nerve and muscle excitability. Metabolic acidosis As hydrogen ions begin accumulating in the body, chemical buffers (bicarbonate and proteins) in cells and extracellular fluid bind them. Excess hydrogen ions decrease blood pH and stimulate chemoreceptors in the medulla to increase respiration. Lots of movin’ goin’ on Healthy kidneys compensate, excreting excess hydrogen ions, buffered by phosphate or ammonia. For each hydrogen ion excreted, renal tubules reabsorb and return to the blood one sodium ion and one bicarbonate ion. To maintain balance of charge across the cells’ membrane, cells release potassium ions. Excess hydrogen ions change the normal balance of potassium, sodium, and calcium ions, impairing neural excitability. Metabolic alkalosis Chemical buffers in the extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid bind with bicarbonate in the body. When blood bicarbonate rises to 28 mEq/L, the amount filtered by the renal glomeruli exceeds the reabsorptive capacity of the renal tubules. To maintain electrochemical balance, sodium ions and water are excreted with bicarbonate ions. When hydrogen ion levels in the extracellular fluid are low, hydrogen ions diffuse passively out of cells and extracellular potassium ions move into cells. As intracellular hydrogen levels fall, calcium ionization decreases, and nerve cells become permeable to sodium ions. Sodium ions moving into cells trigger neural impulses in the peripheral and central nervous systems. What to look for Each disturbance in acid-base balance has its own distinct signs and symptoms. Respiratory alkalosis Possible signs and symptoms of respiratory alkalosis include: • deep, rapid respirations • light-headedness or dizziness • agitation • circumoral and peripheral paresthesia • carpopedal spasms, twitching, and muscle weakness. Metabolic acidosis Possible signs and symptoms of metabolic acidosis include: • headache and lethargy progressing to drowsiness • Kussmaul’s respirations • hypotension • stupor and, if condition is severe and untreated, coma and death • anorexia • nausea and vomiting • diarrhea • dehydration • warm, flushed skin • fruity-smelling breath. Battling illness Treating disorders of acid-base balance the goal of treating all acid-base imbalances is reversing the underlying cause. Respiratory acidosis Treatment of respiratory acidosis focuses on improving ventilation and lowering the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide. If hypoventilation can’t be corrected, the patient should have an artificial airway inserted and be placed on mechanical ventilation. Treatment for respiratory acidosis with a pulmonary cause also includes: a bronchodilator to open constricted airways supplemental oxygen as needed drug therapy to treat hyperkalemia an antibiotic to treat infection chest physiotherapy to remove secretions from the lungs removal of a foreign body from the patient’s airway if needed. If respiratory acidosis stems from nonpulmonary conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders or a drug overdose, the underlying cause must be corrected. Treating the underlying condition may include removing the causative agent, such as a salicylate or other drugs, or taking steps to reduce fever and eliminate the source of sepsis. Metabolic acidosis Treatment aims to correct the acidosis as quickly as possible by addressing both the symptoms and the underlying cause. Respiratory compensation is usually the first line of therapy, including mechanical ventilation if needed. For patients with diabetes, expect to administer rapid-acting insulin to reverse diabetic ketoacidosis and drive potassium back into the cell. Even though high serum levels exist initially, serum potassium levels will drop when the acidosis is corrected, possibly resulting in hypokalemia. Dialysis may be initiated in patients with renal failure or a toxic reaction to a drug. Such patients may receive an antibiotic to treat sources of infection or an antidiarrheal to treat diarrhea bicarbonate loss. Metabolic alkalosis Treatment for metabolic alkalosis may involve these interventions: Rarely, ammonium chloride is administered I. Metabolic alkalosis Possible signs and symptoms of metabolic alkalosis include: • irritability • carphology (picking at bedclothes) • twitching • confusion • nausea and vomiting • diarrhea • cardiac arrhythmias • slow, shallow respirations • diminished peripheral blood flow • carpopedal spasm in the hand • Trousseau’s sign (spasm of the wrist elicited by applying a blood pressure cuff to the upper arm and inflating it to a pressure 20 mm Hg above the patient’s systemic blood pressure). What tests tell you Arterial blood gas results are the most commonly used laboratory tests to help diagnose acidbase imbalances. Respiratory acidosis these test results help diagnose respiratory acidosis: • Chest X-ray may reveal the cause, such as heart failure, pneumonia, pneumothorax, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Metabolic acidosis these test results help confirm the diagnosis of metabolic acidosis: • Urine pH is less than 4. The value normally ranges from 8 to 14 mEq/L and represents the level of unmeasured anions [negatively charged ions] in extracellular fluid. Metabolic alkalosis the following findings suggest metabolic alkalosis: • Serum potassium level is less than 3. Furthermore, whether they lead to it through a common mechanism is also uncertain. Other signs and symptoms include: • cutaneous oozing • petechiae (microhemorrhages on the skin) • bleeding from surgical or I. The prognosis depends on the timeliness of detection, severity and site of the hemorrhage, and treatment of the underlying disease or condition. Circulating thrombin activates both coagulation and fibrinolysis, leading to paradoxical bleeding and clotting. Supportive care is appropriate if the underlying disorder is selflimiting or if the patient isn’t actively bleeding. In case of bleeding Active bleeding may require administration of fresh-frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, or packed red blood cells to support hemostasis. Drug therapy Heparin therapy is controversial; it may be used early in the disease to prevent microclotting or as a last resort in a patient who’s actively bleeding. These test results support the diagnosis: • Platelet count is decreased, usually to less than 100,000/µl, because platelets are consumed during thrombosis. Confirmation can prove complicated Final confirmation of the diagnosis may be difficult because similar test results also occur in other disorders such as primary fibrinolysis. Potentially fatal purpuric lesions (caused by hemorrhage into tissues) may occur in vital organs, such as the brain and kidneys. What to look for Signs and symptoms that indicate decreased platelets include: • nosebleed • oral bleeding • purpura • petechiae • excessive menstruation. Sudden bleeding here; creeping over there In the acute form, sudden bleeding usually follows a recent viral illness, although it may not occur until 21 days after the virus strikes. Platelet size and appearance may be abnormal, and anemia may be present if bleeding has occurred. Treatment with plasmapheresis or platelet pheresis with transfusion has met with limited success. Splenectomy Patients who don’t respond spontaneously to treatment within 1 to 4 months or who require high doses of corticosteroids to maintain platelet counts require splenectomy. This procedure is up to 85% successful in adults when splenomegaly accompanies the initial thrombocytopenia. Looking at alternatives Alternative treatments include immunosuppressants, such as cyclophosphamide or vincristine, and high-dose I. Immune globulin has a rapid effect, raising platelet counts within 1 to 5 days, but this effect lasts only about 1 to 2 weeks.
Blood flow during exercise is reduced treatment xanax withdrawal generic rulide 150 mg mastercard, Gluteal: bilateral medications keppra purchase rulide 150mg otc, in upper outer quadrants of buttocks in and decreased oxygen uptake in muscles has been noted treatment bladder infection buy discount rulide online. Two studies have found increased levels of substance P Greater Trochanter: bilateral medicine 223 cheap rulide 150mg mastercard, posterior to the troin the cerebrospinal fluid of patients. The syndrome may begin in childhood or ject must state that the palpation was painful. The presence of a second clinical disorder does not exSystem clude the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. X8a Main Features Diffuse aching, burning pain in joints, usually moderReferences ately severe; usually intermittent with exacerbations and Wolfe, F. The condition affects about 1% of the popuCollege of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of lation and is more common in women. Diagnostic critefibromyalgia: report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee, ria of the American Rheumatism Association describe Arthritis Rheum. Further criteria include: (6) subcutaneous nodules, Syndromes (7) typical radiographic changes, (8) positive test for rheumatoid factor in the serum, (9) a poor response in Synonyms: fibrositis (syndrome), myalgia, muscular the mucin clot test in the synovial fluid, (10) synovial rheumatism, nonarticular rheumatism. Specific myofascial syndromes may occur in any voluntary muscle with referred pain, local and referred tenderClassical rheumatoid arthritis requires seven criteria to ness, and a tense shortened muscle. Definite rheumatoid arthritis may be diagsame qualities as that of the diffuse syndromes. Passive nosed on five criteria, and probable rheumatoid arthritis stretch or strong voluntary contraction in the shortened on three criteria. Satellite tender points may develop within the area of pain reference of the Associated Symptoms initial trigger point. Inflammation may affect eyes, demonstration of a trigger point (tender point) and reheart, lungs. This suggests Signs Tenderness, swelling, loss of range of motion of joints, that the syndrome is an epiphenomenon secondary to ligaments, tendons. Chronic destruction and joint deproximal pathology such as nerve root irritation. Others may be coded as required according to individual muscles that are Relief identified as being a site of trouble. Usually good relief of pain and stiffness can be obtained with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but some patients require therapy with gold or other agents. Rheumatoid Arthritis (1-10) Pathology Chronic inflammatory process of synovium, ligaments, Definition or tendons. Aching, burning joint pain due to systemic inflammatory disease affecting all synovial joints, muscle, ligaments, Essential Features and tendons in accordance with diagnostic criteria beAching, burning joint pain with characteristic pathology. Morning stiffness in and around joints lasting at least Page 48 one hour before maximal improvement. Simultaneous soft tissue swelling or fluid in at least There is deep, aching pain which may be severe as the three joint areas observed by a physician. The pain is felt at the joint or joints ble areas are right or left proximal interphalangeal joints involved but may be referred to adjacent muscle groups. At least one area of soft tissue swelling or effusion in rest and later nocturnal pain. Simultaneous involvement of Stiffness occurs after protracted periods of inactivity and the same joint areas as defined in 2 above in both sides in the morning but lasts less than half an hour as a rule. Only about 25% of those with radiographic changes any method for which any result has been positive in report symptoms. Radiographic changes typical of rheumatoid arthritis age of 45 compared with women, and in women over the on posterior-anterior hand and wrist radiographs; this age of 45 compared with men. Aggravating Features A patient fulfilling four of these seven criteria can be Use, fatigue. Signs Clinically, joint line tenderness may be found and crepiDifferential Diagnosis tus on active or passive joint motion; noninflammatory Systemic lupus erythematosus, palindromic rheumatism, effusions are common. Later stage disease is acmixed connective tissue disease, psoriatic arthropathy, companied by gross deformity, bony-hypertrophy, concalcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, seronegative tracture. X-ray evidence of joint space narrowing, spondyloarthropathies, hemochromatosis (rarely). Osteoarthritis (I-11) Relief Some have relief with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory Definition agents or with non-narcotic analgesics. Joint rest in the Deep, aching pain due to a “degenerative” process in a early stages relieves the pain. Occasional relief in the single joint or multiple joints, either as a primary pheearly phases may appear from intra-articular steroids. Physical Disability Site Progressive limitation of ambulation occurs in large Joints most commonly involved are distal and proximal weight-bearing joints. Many joints or only a few joints may be affected, this is loosely described as a “degenerative” disease of. Essential Features System Deep, aching pain associated with the characteristic “deMusculoskeletal system. Page 49 Relief Diagnostic Criteria Acute attacks respond well to nonsteroidal antiNo official diagnostic criteria exist for osteoarthritis, inflammatory drugs, with or without local corticosteroid although criteria have been proposed for osteoarthritis of injections. Complications Noninflammatory arthritis of one or several diarthrodial Chronic disabling arthritis. Differential Diagnosis Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease; presence of Pathology congenital traumatic, inflammatory, endocrinological, or Acute and chronic inflammation or degeneration. Attacks of aching, sharp, and throbbing pain with acute or chronic recurrent inflammation of a joint caused by Differential Diagnosis calcium pyrophosphate crystals. Main Features the disorder occurs clinically in about 1 in 1000 adults, more often in the elderly, but radiology shows the presGout (1-13) ence of the disease in 5% of adults at the time of death. There are four major clinical presentations: (1) pseudogDefinition out: acute redness, heat, swelling, and severe pain which Paroxysmal attacks of aching, sharp, or throbbing pain, is aching, sharp, or throbbing in one or a few joints; the usually severe and due to inflammation of a joint caused attacks last from 2 days to several weeks, with freedom by monosodium urate crystals. Acute severe paroxSigns ysmal attacks of pain occur with redness, heat, swelling, Aspiration of calcium pyrophosphate crystals from the and tenderness, usually in one joint. The patient is often unable to aclage of the wrists, knees, and symphysis pubis. Associated Symptoms In the acute phase, patients may be febrile and have leuCode X38. Redness, heat, and tender swelling of the joint, which may be extremely painful to move. Hemophilic Arthropathy (1-14) Laboratory Findings Serum urate may vary during the acute attack. LeukocyDefinition tosis and raised sedimentation rate are seen during the Bouts of acute, constant, nagging, burning, bursting, and attack. Attacks may become polyarticular the most common joints affected initially are the knees, and recur at shorter intervals and may eventually resolve ankles, and elbows. Shoulders, hips, and wrist joints are incompletely leaving chronic, progressive crippling araffected next most often. Renal calculi, tophaceous deposits, and chronic arthritis Main Features with joint damage. Prevalence: hemophilic joint hemorrhages occur in sePathology verely and moderately affected male hemophiliacs. In the adult, spontaneous hemorrhages Diagnostic Criteria and pain occur in association also with minor or severe 1. Characteristically the acute pain is associated hydrate crystals in synovial fluid leukocytes by powith such hemarthrosis, which is relieved by replacelarizing microscopy or other acceptable methods of ment therapy and rest of the affected limb. Demonstration of sodium urate monohydrate crystals be simply spontaneous small recurrent hemorrhages. The in an aspirate or biopsy of a tophus by methods simipain associated with them is extremely difficult to treat lar to those in 1. In the absence of specific crystal identification, a Time Course: the acute pain is marked by fullness and history of monoarticular arthritis followed by an asstiffness and constant nagging, burning, or bursting ymptomatic intercritical period, rapid resolution of qualities. It is incapacitating and will cause severe pain synovitis following Colchicine administration, and for at least a week depending upon the degree of intrathe presence of hyperuricemia. It will recur episodically Any one of the three above is sufficient to make the difrom the causes indicated. At the stage of destructive joint with blood clotting factor concentrate is available on a changes the chronic pain is unremitting and relieved regular basis only in North America and Europe at this mainly by rest and analgesics.
Complications Social and Physical Disability Gastric ulcers may bleed symptoms heart attack order 150mg rulide mastercard, usually chronically medications ending in zine buy generic rulide online, presenting Those of chronic pain and addiction treatment genital warts cheap rulide online master card. Peptic ulcers may perRight upper quadrant pain in a patient following choleforate treatment wasp stings cheap rulide american express, though usually insidiously, resulting in erosion cystectomy with no obvious cause. Social and Physical Disability Recurrent or chronic pain will restrict normal activities Code and reduce productivity at work. X I Page 153 Pathology Complications Chronic ulceration with transmural inflammation results Duodenal ulcers may acutely bleed or perforate. Social and Physical Disability Summary of Essential Features and Diagnostic CriRestriction of normal activities and reduction of producteria tivity at work. Chronic gastric ulcer is a syndrome of periodic diffuse postprandial upper abdominal pain relieved by antacids. Pathology the diagnosis is made by endoscopy or barium contrast Chronic ulceration with transmural inflammation resultradiology. X3a teria Chronic duodenal ulcer is a syndrome of periodic, highly localized, upper epigastric pain relieved by antacids. Definition Attacks of periodic epigastric pain due to ulceration of Code the first part of the duodenal mucosa. Occurs at any age but commonly in young and middleaged adults and is still more common in men. Periodic Main Features pain, which commonly lasts from a few days to two or Uncommon, occurring predominantly in middle-aged three weeks, with pain-free periods lasting for months. There may be a past history of a gastric ulcer or Associated Symptoms partial gastrectomy 15 years or more previously. Pain Weight loss uncommon; patients may actually gain varies from a dull discomfort to an ulcer-like pain, weight. Dyspepsia and often nausea occur, but vomiting which is not relieved by antacids, to a constant dull pain. Associated Symptoms Signs and Laboratory Findings Anorexia and weight loss early in the disease, together Patient often points to site of pain, which is also tender, with fatigue. The diagnosis is made on endoscopy or intestinal bleeding, hematemesis and/or melena, or signs barium meal (upper gastrointestinal series). Later, symphypercalcemia is discovered in association with hypertoms of obstruction either at the pylorus, with gastric parathyroidism. Usual Course Attacks of periodic pain may become more frequent and Signs and Laboratory Findings for longer duration. Pain commonly responds to approPhysical findings include those of obvious weight loss of priate doses of antacids and healing is promoted by H2 cachexia, a palpable mass in the epigastrium, and an receptor antagonists. Laboratory findings are mainly of anerelapse, which can be considerably prevented by mainmia, which may be microcytic due to chronic blood loss, tenance doses. Pain can vary from a dull discomfort to, in the Occult blood is commonly present in the stool. Hypoprolater stages, an excruciating severe pain boring through teinemia is found, at times associated with a proteinto the back, which is difficult to relieve with analgesics. Liver chemistry tests, especially alkaline phosphatase, will be abnormal in patients with Associated Symptoms hepatic metastases. Generalized symptoms of fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, fever, and depression occur early in the course of the Usual Course disease. The patient may present with a sudden onset of If the patient presents early in the course of the disease diabetes mellitus late in life, without a family history, or the tumor may be resectable, although the chance of with recurrent venous thromboses. Complications There may be obstruction at the cardia or pylorus, or Signs and Laboratory Findings metastases in the liver or in more distant organs such as Evidence of recent weight loss and eventually cachexia the lungs or bone, resulting in bone pain. Jaundice and a central or lower epigastric hard mass are late findings, and a palpable spleen tip is Social and Physical Disability uncommon. Laboratory findings usually show normoInoperable patients continue with anorexia and weight chromic normocytic anemia with or without thrombocyloss, become cachectic and totally incapacitated. Later, an elevated alkaline phosphatase and Pathology serum conjugated bilirubin may occur and the serum the tumor is usually an adenocarcinoma. Usual Course Only a minority of patients, from 20 to 40%, are operSummary of Essential Features and Diagnostic Criable at the time of diagnosis. The overall prognosis depends on Complications the stage of the tumor at the time of diagnosis, early rethese include diabetes mellitus, obstructive jaundice, sectable tumors having an excellent prognosis. Social and Physical Disability Code the symptom complex with weight loss and generalized 453. The overall prognosis even Central or paraumbilical or upper abdominal over the with modern imaging techniques is poor. Differential Diagnosis Malignancy in other organs, stricture or impacted stone in the common bile duct. X4b Page 155 Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia comes severe, weight loss results and sudden small bowel infarction may occur. Definition Main Features Pain due to chronic granulomatous disease of the gastroProgressively severe abdominal pain precipitated by intestinal tract. Associated Symptoms There may be symptoms suggestive of gastric or duodeSystem nal ulceration or intermittent incomplete small bowel Gastrointestinal system, sometimes including liver. Signs and Laboratory Findings There may be evidence of generalized atherosclerosis as Main Features shown by absent femoral popliteal or pedal pulses, or the Becoming increasingly common in young adults but can presence of an epigastric bruit. No specific laboratory occur at any age; males and females affected equally; findings are diagnostic. Weight loss is associated with a pain usually due to obstruction in the distal ileum with severe form of this disease. Arteriographic evaluation colicky central abdominal pain in bouts; or localized indicates severe stenosis or occlusion of all three meseninflammation (abscess formation) may cause a constant teric vessels, including the inferior mesenteric artery, the severe pain. A meandering artery, indicating collateral blood flow to the coAssociated Symptoms lon, is a common finding. Intestinal obstruction associated with distention, nausea and vomiting, alteration in bowel habit, constipation or Usual Course diarrhea or both, aggravated by eating, relieved by Progressive weight loss and abdominal pain if untreated. Signs and Laboratory Findings Social and Physical Disability Mass in right lower quadrant; central abdominal distenthis unusual problem may be part of a picture of gension; increased bowel sounds. Differential Diagnosis Complications Small intestine—benign strictures; large intestine— There is a suggestion on epidemiological and experiulcerative colitis. X3a Sustained pain Social and Physical Disability Severe constipation, particularly in the elderly, can cause spurious diarrhea resulting in fecal incontinence. The Abdominal pain, usually dull, due to chronic alteration Western world’s highly refined low-fiber diet predisin bowel habit resulting in fewer bowel movements and poses to small stool weights and constipation, which is diminished mean daily fecal output. Rarer causes include disorders of colonic muscle such as congenital Site megacolon and Hirschprung’s disease. Summary of Essential Features and Diagnostic System Criteria Gastrointestinal system. Abdominal pain, usually dull, sometimes exacerbated by eating due to chronic constipation, which is largely a Main Features disorder of Western civilization and increases with age. Common in any age group but becoming increasingly the diagnosis is made from the history and physical common in the elderly. The pain is located over the cutaneous markings of the colon, most Differential Diagnosis commonly in the left lower quadrant and upper abdomen Diverticular disease, carcinoma of the colon. The pain may vary from being constant and dull to sharp or very severe, but it never Code prevents sleep. X7a erbations associated with eating; defecation may bring partial temporary relief. However certain high-fiber foods such as Chronic abdominal pain of no apparent cause associated vegetables and bulk laxatives failing to cause defecation with alteration of bowel habit. Site Anywhere over the cutaneous markings of the colon but Signs and Laboratory Findings maximal on the left lower quadrant over the descending the abdomen may be chronically distended; colonic colon. Very common, maximum in second, third, and fourth Page 157 decades but onset at any age from first to eighth decade. Diverticular Disease of the Colon More common in females, with ratio varying from 2:1 to 5:1. It occurs daily throughout the Definition year and in some patients “never misses a day,” often for Pain, usually dull, arising in relation to multiple small many years. The pain is out of keeping with the patient’s sac-like projections from the lumen of the colon through physical condition. The pain is most commonly in the left lower abdominal There is always an alteration in bowel habit, either quadrant, related to the sigmoid colon, spreading more morning diarrhea with five to six bowel actions followed widely if the disease involves the whole colon. Main Features the pain is not a common symptom in this very comSigns and Laboratory Findings mon condition, which rarely presents before age 40, but Tenderness over part of colon.
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