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By: Rima A. Mohammad, PharmD, BCPS
- Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan
- Clinical Pharmacist, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan
When the parasite enters the circulation allergy medicine can i give my dog cheap 25 mg benadryl otc, the patient develops fever allergy testing miami cheap benadryl 25 mg with amex, headache allergy to alcohol benadryl 25 mg for sale, malaise allergy forecast naperville purchase online benadryl, arthralgias, dizziness, pruritus and lymphnode enlargement. The diagnosis of both forms may be difficult, especially in travelers from non-endemic areas where physicians are not familiar with this illness. There is leukocytosis with increased monocytes, especially plasma cells (Mott cells. It is reported to have numerous side effects and is contraindicated in children weighing less than 8 kg and in pregnant women. It is effective in all stages, but similar to pentamidine, it causes several side effects. Difluoro-methyl-ornithine or eflornitine, 400 mg/ kg/day for 15 days, is also effective although it is contraindicated in pregnancy, in renal insuficiency and in children under two years of age. Prophylaxis to prevent transmission, insecticides, protection against the vector and control of the animal reservoirs, must be undertaken. Molecular biology of African trypanosomes: Development of new strategies to combat an old disease. Fever, leukopenia and a cutaneous lesion in a man who had recently traveled in Africa. Recently the Civil War in Sudan has contributed to its dissemination and seriousness. In Latin America it is mainly found in Guatemala, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Mexico (20,000. Microfilariae, 150-280 mm long and 5-7 mm wide occupy the anterior chamber of the eye and the skin. Feeding insects take up the parasite larvae from the skin and deposit them on other individuals. These forms concentrate in cystic lesions from which the microfilariae are born and pass into the skin and circulation. It occurs in more than 80% of cases and is explained by the cytotoxic effect of the products of massive destruction of the parasite which induces elevations of serotonin and reactive protein C. It has been suggested that tolerance occurs in immune-compromised individuals in whom microfilariae persist (Int J Derm 1985; Tropical Dermatology, edited by Roberto Arenas and Roberto Estrada. The filarial protease contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic onchocercal dermatitis directly by enzymatic destruction of connective tissue and indirectly by eliciting an autoimmune response (Exp Parasitol 1994; 79(2):177-88. Skin subcutaneous lesions occur on or near the joints, on the head and upper trunk, but may also occur on the buttocks, in the sacrococcygeal region and the lower extremities (onchocercomas. The lesions are cystic and contain adult filariae; they are spherical or oval, are asymptomatic and may perforate the skull. On the trunk and extremities so-called lichenified onchodermatitis is characterized by dry skin, ictiosiform, lichenification, pigmentation, scaling or hyperkeratosis (saurio skin) and pruritus. Later on there is atrophy, especially of lesions of the buttocks, with loss of elasticity, marked skin folds, alopecia and anhidrosis (Fig. There is a form known as onchocercal dyschromia with alternating areas of depigmented and normal or hyperpigmented skin around the follicles (Leopard skin. There may be lymphadenopathy, lymphedema and redundant inguinal and femoral skin (adenolymphocele. The ocular involvement, occurring in 50% of cases, is caused by microfilariae in the anterior and posterior chambers and may cause choroidoretinal atrophy. The symptoms and signs are photophobia, lacrimation, burning, decreased visual acuity, conjunctival erythema and edema, keratitis (punctate and sclerosing), and iritis (Fig. Leukoma, limbitis and pseudopterigium, and blindness ensue soon thereafter in a high percentage of cases. The acute stage, or so-called Mazzottis reaction, appears spontaneously or is induced by therapy with diethylcarbamazine. It is characterized by generalized and digestive symptoms, fever, headache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, adenitis, abdominal pain, diarrhea and epistaxis. Cysts become more prominent, and deep erythema, edema and papules with occasional vesicles and blisters comprise 49 what is known as acute, papular onchodermatitis (filariasic scabies. There is intense pruritus in the face, neck, upper trunk and proximal extremities; anxiety can be severe. It is not clear if the unbearable itching is just pruritus since, in addition to scratching, the patients hit their skin. There is photophobia, conjunctival eythema, burning, or the sensation of a foreign body. The erythema can occur suddenly as a darkly cyanotic and uniform plaque (cyanotic disease or erysipelas of the coast) usually accompanied by hyperesthesia. Cutaneous biopsy should be obtained with a curved scissor, scalpel or razor blade; snips of 0. Best sample sites are ear lobe, shoulders or supraclavicular region, and the hip. After rending the skin samples, they are observed under the microscope with saline solution to look for microfilariae. Exposing the skin to heat prior to biopsy induces the microfilariae to move rapidly to the surface. Hematoxylin and eosin staining can demonstrate microfilariae in the dermis and hypodermis with the usual markers of inflammation (Fig. In the subacute form there are abundant fibroblasts, compact collagen and elastosis. The microfilariae often concentrate at a single site and become intertwined in an ovid mass that contains tubular, eosinophilic structures that stain well with Giemsa. With time they calcify and are surrounded by a granulomatous reaction with fibrosis. There is eosinophilia in peripheral blood, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is increased. It is administered twice a year, but the optimum regimen has not been established. It is able to control the disease which remains transmisibile; it also diminishes the ocular damage as it destroys larvae very slowly. The density of microfilariae in the skin and the anterior chamber is diminished; corneal opacity is also reduced (Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1994; 49 88(5):581-4; Am J Trop Med Hyg 1995; 52(3):270-8. The pruritus, erythema, and edema that accompany the acute reaction may be mitigated with antihistaminics, antiserotonins or with thalidomide 100-300 mg/day for 3-10 days. Diethylcarbamazine (Hetrazan), another microfilaricide, 250 mg/day in adults and 100 mg/day (two tablets) is given for 10 days. Metrifonate is also used, 10 mg/kg/day for six days every two weeks in four series. Both trigger Mazzottis reaction in 88% of cases in 24 hr and may be used as a diagnostic test. All have a cycle requiring a vector (Culex, Aedes) and symptoms characteristic of the nature of the adult nematodes and the immune response to the microfilariae. Prophylaxis, requiring massive chemoprophylaxis and treatment of the vectors, is almost impossible. Lymphangitic filariasis is estimated that there are about 90 million people affected worldwide. In 90% of cases obstruction of the lymphatic vessels is caused by the adult worms of Wuchereria bancrofti and in the other cases by Brugia malayi and B. Chronic disease is characterized by adenolymphoceles, varicose veins, lymphedema and elephantiasis. It is manifested by cutaneous lesions and the immune reaction to destruction of the microfilariae. It is associated with pruritus of the thorax and genitalia, angioedema, and subcutaneous migration sites (Calabar swellings. Larvae in the skin form palpable, erythematous cords of less than 10 cm and that move 1 cm per minute. Dirofilariosis occurs throughout the world and affects man in an accidental manner. Mansonelosis occurs in Asia, Africa and South America and is caused by Mansonella perstans, M.
In Ipecac allergy medicine under 2 years old purchase benadryl without prescription, the illness is sudden allergy testing equipment cheap benadryl, progresses rapidly allergy testing guelph generic benadryl 25 mg without a prescription, and the face becomes flushed allergy symptoms august discount benadryl 25 mg mastercard. But in Antimonium Tart, on exposure to cold the child becomes weak slowly and steadily, and once the disease has well established the symptoms become extremely aggravated, more than in Ipecac. In Ipecac, the entire body of the patient reacts to the illness, but in Antimonium Tart, even if the chest is full of phlegm and there is difficulty in breathing, the patient does not have the desire to expel the phlegm. The result is that the patient becomes overwhelmed by the severity of the disease. If initially, the diagnosis for Antimonium Tart has been made the treatment should be started without any delay. One distinctive point between the two is that if there is nausea but no vomiting, then it is probably due to Ipecac. However, if there is a tendency to vomit with or without nausea, it is a symptom of Antimonium Tart, except in the case where the chest becomes full of secretions, which the patient cannot expel due to marked weakness. Ipecac is very effective to treat the excessive red menstrual bleeding associated with nausea. If the placenta happens to be partially retained in the uterus after the childbirth and if the patient has other symptoms of Ipecac, then it will help in the expulsion of the placenta. If the patient Ipecacuanha 406 develops Puerperal Fever after childbirth, then Sulphur and Pyrogenium should be considered. The nasal discharge drips into the throat and the chest, causing pain and tightness of the chest. The cold starting at the nose and then affecting the throat and the chest, leading to asthma, can be cured with Ipecac. The standard formularies are mostly meant for those who do not understand much homoeopathy. At the same time, it is difficult to think of a unique prescription keeping in view the detailed symptoms of the patient. After the attack of asthma is over, the illness should be studied, keeping in mind the constitution of the patient. So in the beginning of the disease, the patient should be well covered and given hot fluids to sip. Many a time, the symptoms of kidney infections and the onset of malaria resemble each other therefore undue haste should be avoided. Initially, symptomatic treatment should be given and once the symptoms have been clearly defined, then the proper treatment should be started. Ipecac is also useful in the treatment of whooping cough in view of the associated symptom of spasmodic constriction of the air passages. If during a convulsion, the entire body becomes stiff, the face becomes flushed and there is nausea, then Ipecac will prove to be extraordinarily beneficial. One may think of Belladonna in this condition, though Ipecac should first be tried. He tested it on patients suffering from severe intestinal colic associated with vomiting of greenish material. Iris Versicolor is ideal for the treatment of hyperacidity of the stomach, whereas in Iris Tenax the hyperacidity of the stomach is associated with symptoms related to the throat and mouth cavity. Often, the headache settles on the right side, but it may be felt on the left side as well. The patient suffers from severe abdominal pain, associated with the feeling of being tense and distended. This itch is not the usual kind but merely a temporarily associated burning sensation. However, in my opinion, Iris Tenax may also be used for the treatment of pain affecting any tooth presenting the symptoms just mentioned. Being more closely Iris Tenax 409 related to the right side, it is considered the best treatment for appendicitis. But in view of its symptoms, subsequent experimentation with Iris Tenax has found it to be very useful in the treatment of appendicitis. I have often used Iris Tenax with Arnica and Bryonia in potency 200 for the treatment of appendicitis, and found it very useful and amazingly effective. If cramps are the salient symptom, then instead of Bryonia one should use Belladonna. Very often, appendicitis can become complicated and lead to a very dangerous situation. I often would get sick with appendicitis and used to get better with this prescription. The surgeon could not comprehend that not only was I alive but had also driven the car for 400 miles. Naturally, I underwent the surgical removal of my appendix, but I did not take penicillin; instead I used homoeopathic antibacterial drugs. My advice to homoeopathy students, as well as to the patients, is that they should not totally depend upon these three remedies and keep postponing the need for surgery. Once the appendix is diseased, the homoeopathic remedies may only be used temporarily but the removal of the appendix by surgery is still the best treatment. According to my experience, there is no such restriction on the time of the onset of appendicitis. In Iris Tenax, the pain starts on the right side and then spreads in the entire abdomen. On waking up in the morning, the Iris Tenax patient has a sinking sensation over the stomach. Many a time the patient develops diarrhoea at night, which aggravates further by midnight. If the patient happens to feel a burning sensation during frequent urination Iris Tenax 410 and the colour of the urine is brown, then this is a symptom of Iris Tenax. Arsenic and Natrum Phos are also useful in the treatment of this condition, though their individual symptoms should also be kept in mind. Hyperacidity of the stomach, which causes the urine to turn yellow in colour, is also found in relation to other medicines. Excessive and frequent urination leaves the patient very weak and makes it difficult for him to walk. In spite of decrease in pain and extreme weakness he is unable to get up in the morning. Since it affects the ears, it proves effective against the vertigo, secondary to ear problems. Iris Versicolor is also the best medicine for the treatment of the vertigo resulting from problems of the eardrum and imbalance from the fluid inside the ear (middle ear. Nux Vomica and Bryonia Alba are useful against the giddiness due to stomach upsets. The symptoms of Iris Versicolor include: facial neuralgia, which begins after taking breakfast, a burning sensation on the tongue and inside the mouth, thick string-like saliva like Coccus, and a burning sensation throughout the digestive system due to hyperacidity. Sometimes, the patient suffers from constipation and at other times develops diarrhoea. Iris Versicolor is diagnosed mainly on the basis of symptoms pertaining to the stomach. The ailments of Iris Versicolor aggravate while resting, during the night and ameliorate with movement. Kali Bichrome, Kali Carb, Kali Iodide and Kali Sulph have one thing in common, their illnesses and pain are specific to certain areas of the body. Even the nasal cold begins from pain over a tiny localised area, mostly on the left side. Long ago, I also used to suffer from headache, felt mostly at a tiny specific point, such as the temple. In case these are suppressed with some strong allopathic medicines, it will prove harmful instead of being beneficial. This medicine should be used to treat those patients in whom catarrhal conditions appear, when the body aches get better.
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One symptom is common to Pulsatilla and Ledum yet it is not difficult to differentiate between the two allergy help buy 25mg benadryl otc. In Ledum the limbs that become the seat of chronic pain allergy symptoms pollen headache buy benadryl without a prescription, gradually become weak allergy testing washington dc discount benadryl american express, contracted and shrivelled allergy treatment for 18 month old purchase 25 mg benadryl with visa, in comparison to the non-affected side. The clear distinction is that a Pulsatilla patient feels hot and gets relief with cold, while the patient of Ledum feels cold yet gets relief with cold. Injury to the eye, blood shots, and simultaneous onset of gout and cataract respond beautifully to treatment with Ledum. In Ledum, tiny red pimples form on the forehead and cheeks, which are painful to touch. The innate body temperature of a Ledum patient is low (sub-normal), yet Ledum 475 he cannot tolerate the warmth of the bed. It is particularly very useful in the treatment of women of hysterical and impulsive nature who chronically suffer from uterine and heart conditions. They have a feeling as if their uterus and internal organs are sagging down, which they unknowingly keep on trying to push up. If she is a sadist and of hysterical nature, she can best be treated with Lilium Tig. While behaving in a stubborn or hysterical way, a Lilium Tig patient talks nonsense; whereas in her normal life she is quite rational. The patient indulges in useless argumentation only under the influence of this disease. Generally, young boys and girls continue to argue even if they know that they are wrong. People who diet excessively may also develop this tendency, although they are not Lilium Tig patients. However prolonged scrupulous dieting can leave permanent ill effects on their mind for life. A balanced diet and suitable exercise, rather than starvation, are the best means to control body weight and achieve good health, or the person will acquire the stubborn nature and illogical argumentation of Lilium Tig due to starvation. However, in Lilium Tig, unlike Hyoscyamus and Cantharis, the sexual urge becomes a chronic illness that is very difficult to overcome. Lilium Tigrinum 477 In Lilium Tig, the headache is mostly localised to the forehead. In Merc Cor, the patient has only the feeling of incomplete opening of the bowels, while in Lilium Tig the patient continues to feel like going to the lavatory all the time. Like Merc Cor, the patient also feels a burning sensation even after having passed the urine. Once the scary thought of becoming insane becomes set in the mind, it is indelible. In addition to the medication, the patient also requires counselling with love and affection. In general, psychological and physical ailments are very intimately related, even to an inseparable extent. If during homoeopathic practice, one can diagnose the psychological condition, the treatment of the related physical condition will help cure both. Some of the Lilium Tig patients believe that they have not been properly understood. It becomes very difficult to avoid them and their useless continued argumentation. If the treatment becomes effective, they will return to normality, otherwise they will forever insist that nobody has been able to understand them properly. The patient feels very hungry and especially desires to eat Lilium Tigrinum 478 meat. Lilium Tig ailments aggravate in a heated room and with outward superficial consolation. The prolonged use of Mag Carb can result in serious ailments and bad aftereffects, which can luckily be treated with the homoeopathic form of Magnesia Carb in high potency. Even if the symptoms apparently seem to be getting better, they will definitely show some aggravation after twenty-one days. The patient feels severe pain along the course of the nerves supplying the teeth (dental neuralgia. A similar kind of toothache may be experienced during menstruation, which disappears after the periods are over. The neuralgic pains of Mag Carb subside on a light stroll, especially the toothache. Any patient with the symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis and having a sallow face may be treated with Mag Carb, if other symptoms are not pointing to another specific remedy. In Mag Carb, the stools are clay-coloured and quite foul, indicative of liver disorder. In the cancer of the stomach and intestines also, the stools contain lot of gas and being lighter, float in water. One has to be very careful before labelling a patient with the diagnosis of cancer. If other symptoms are also suggestive of cancer, then of Magnesia Carb 481 course the doctor must feel seriously concerned. An experienced veterinary surgeon found that in areas where horses suffered from this disease, the cows and other cattle contracted a condition like smallpox by sitting on the grass. It is an established fact that in homoeopathy, Malandrinum has been used very effectively in curing smallpox. It has also been found very useful to annul the ill effects of the smallpox vaccination. The child who was not given Malandrinum exhibited the most severe reaction to the vaccine while the other three did not. Once during an epidemic of smallpox, another doctor continued treating the patients and himself using only Malandrinum 30 in repeated doses. With the use of Malandrinum, even after having been afflicted with smallpox, the patient makes rapid recovery without any serious damage. Doctor Burnett is of the opinion that Malandrinum is a profoundly active and effective homoeopathic remedy, and as such it should not be repeated unnecessarily. Malandrinum is also useful in the treatment of eczema developing after a smallpox vaccination. However Thuja is known to be much better regarding the control of bad side effects of the smallpox vaccination. If the bones become deformed and bent, causing knock-knees (genu valgum), then Malandrinum will be helpful in correcting the deformities. Malandrinum 483 Malandrinum is also useful in the treatment of skin conditions including different forms of eczema, blisters and pustule formation. Its blisters/pustules appear gradually in the form of crops, one after the other, over a long time. One doctor successfully cured a dog riddled with pustules on his neck with Malandrinum. Malandrinum is also useful in the treatment of joint pains associated with inflammation of their inner linings (synovitis. Usually, it is more effective on the lower half of the body such as the legs, from the knees down to the ankles. Malandrinum is also reported to be useful in the treatment of uterine conditions causing deep itch, inflammation and discharge of greenish leucorrhoea. Like Kreosotum, it may also be useful in the treatment of bleeding gums that begin to bleed on trivial pressure. Children who forget everything whatever they have learnt previously, benefit significantly with Malandrinum in low potency, used two to three times a week for a few months. Headache, nausea, generalized body aches, and irritation of the stomach, are its unique symptoms. The pain and tightness over the liver, the dysfunction of liver, spleen and kidney, anaemia, pallor, feeling of cold and generalised debility and weakness should be treated with Malaria Officinalis. It is also useful in the treatment of chronic malaria, which is untreatable otherwise.
Alcohol causes crime through the loss of self-control allergy shots dc order benadryl 25mg on line, seen especially in intoxication mould allergy treatment uk discount 25 mg benadryl with amex, and also because of the moroseness and quarrelsomeness which it developes in certain individuals allergy symptoms glands generic benadryl 25mg otc. Indirectly it causes crime through the poverty which it engenders and through its influence in bringing about social conditions out of which crime develops allergy forecast today nyc discount benadryl uk. Everything considered, the free use of alcohol is incompatible with the nervous health and moral tone of a community. Taken in small quantities, it is a mild stimulant and, if the doses are repeated, a habit is formed which is difficult to break. While not so serious in its results as the alcohol and other drug habits, the use of tobacco is of no benefit, is a continual and useless expense, and, in many instances, causes a derangement of the healthy action of the body. It induces, as already stated (page 56), a dangerous nervous derangement called "tobacco heart," and it causes a serious disorder of the retina (retinitis) which leads in some instances to loss of vision. Tobacco smoke also acts as an irritant to the delicate lining of the eyes, especially when the tobacco is smoked indoors. In addition to the harmful effects observed in those of mature years, nicotine interferes with the normal development of the body and lays, in many instances, the foundation for physical and mental weakness in later life. The cigarette is decidedly harmful, especially when inhalation is practiced, its deadening effects being in part due to the wrappers, some of which have been shown to contain arsenic and other poisonous drugs. While dulling the intellect and weakening the body, cigarette smoking also tends to make criminals of boys. Self-control is the chief safeguard against the formation of bad habits and is the only means of redemption from such habits after they have once been formed. The persistent cultivation of the power to control the appetites and the passions, as well as all forms of activity which tend to injure the body or  debase the character, gives a tone to the nervous system which increases the self-respect and raises the individual to a higher plane of life. The worst habits can be broken and good ones formed in their stead, if only there is sufficient determination to accomplish these results. Failure comes from not having the mind thoroughly "made up" and from not having, back of the desire to do better, "the strong will of a righteous determination. Hutchison, of the Kansas State Reformatory, says: "Using cigarettes is the cause of the downfall of more of the inmates of this institution than all other vicious habits combined. Noise, disorder, and confusion act as nervous irritants, but quiet, order, and system have the opposite effect. There is, therefore, much in the management of the office, factory, schoolroom, or home that has to do with the real hygiene of the nerves as well as with the efficiency of the work that is being done. The suppression of distracting influences not only enables the mind to be given fully to the work in hand, but actually prevents waste of nervous energy. Although the responsibility for securing the best conditions for work rests primarily with those in charge, it is also true that each individual in every organization may contribute to the order or disorder that prevails. His relations to his fellow-men, therefore, affect strongly his nervous condition and theirs also. For this reason the best hygiene of the nervous system is based upon moral as well as physical right living. Along with the power of self-control and the maintenance of a correct nervous poise, there should be a proper regard for the welfare of others. On account of  the ease with which one individual may disturb the nervous state of another, those social forms and customs which tend to establish harmonious relations among men are truly hygienic in their effects, and may well be carried out in spirit as well as "in letter. How important, then, that each and all cultivate, as habits, the qualities of cheerfulness, kindness, and good-will, instead of the opposite 422 Physiology and Hygiene for Secondary Schools states of mind. Especially in the family, and other groups of closely associated individuals, should the nervous effect of one member upon the others be considered and every effort made to secure and maintain harmonious relations. On this account a true conception of the value and meaning of life is of the greatest importance. An ever present, strong desire to live a vigorous, but simple and noble, life will suggest the proper course to pursue when in doubt and will stimulate the power of self-control. It will cause one to recoil from the use of alcohol and other nerve poisons, as from a deadly serpent, seeing the end in the beginning, and will be the means eventually of leading the body into its greatest accomplishments. There are also found in our methods of living and systems of education conditions that tend to waste the nervous energy. To protect the nervous system from all these threatened dangers requires, among other things, the power of self-control. This enables the individual to direct his life according to his highest ideals and to free himself from habits known to be injurious. Especially must they be kept from becoming enslaved to some drug, such as alcohol or the nicotine of tobacco. In what respect is the hygiene of the nervous system the hygiene of the entire bodyfi Name several influences that react unfavorably on the nervous systems of children. Why is the use of alcohol even in small quantities to be regarded as a dangerous practicefi What are the unanswerable arguments for preventing the use of tobacco by the youngfi Why do cigarettes have a more harmful effect upon the body than other forms of tobaccofi Enumerate conditions in the schoolroom that dissipate the nervous energy of pupils; that economize it. Moving along definite pathways, they induce motion in the muscles, and in the glands the secretion of liquids. It is now our purpose to consider the effect produced by afferent impulses upon the brain and, through the brain, upon the mind. Roughly speaking, they are the states of mind experienced as the direct result of impulses reaching the brain. In a sense, just as impulses passing to the muscles cause motion, impulses passing to the brain cause sensations. Care must be exercised by the beginner, however, not to confuse sensations with the nervous impulses, on the one hand, or with secondary mental effects, such as emotion or imagination, on the other. Sensations are properly regarded as the first conscious effects of the afferent impulses and as the beginning stage in the series of mental processes that may take place on account of them. Pain, for 114 the term "mind" is used in this and preceding chapters in its popular, not technical, sense. This association, by the mind, of the sensations with different parts of the body, is known as "localizing the sensation. If these are removed, the sensations cease and they do not start up again unless the exciting influences are again applied. Any agency, such as heat or pressure, which, by acting on the neurons of the body, is able to produce a sensation, may be called a sensation stimulus. It has perhaps already been observed that the stimuli that lead to voluntary action, as well as those that produce reflex action of the muscles, cause sensations at the same time. From this we may conclude that sensation stimuli are the same in character as those that excite motion. On the other hand, it should be noted that sensations are constantly resulting from stimuli that are of too mild a nature to cause motion. If these are studied with reference to their origin, it will be seen that some of them result from the action of definite forms of stimuli upon the neurons terminating in sense organs; while the others, as a rule, arise from the action of indefinite stimuli upon neurons in parts of the body that do not possess sense organs. The members of the first class—and these include the sensations of touch, temperature, taste, smell, hearing, and sight—are known  as the special sensations. The others, including the sensations of pain, hunger, thirst, nausea, fatigue, comfort, discomfort, and those of disease, are known as organic, or general, sensations. These two classes of sensations differ in their purpose in the body as well as in the manner of their origin. It starts up 426 Physiology and Hygiene for Secondary Schools or stops, increases in intensity or diminishes, according to the action of the exciting stimulus. As the stimuli are outside of the nervous system, and in the majority of cases outside of the body, the sensations indicate to the mind what is taking place either in the body itself or in its surroundings. They supply, in other words, the means through which the mind acquires information. By means of the special sensations, a knowledge of the physical surroundings of the body is gained, and through the organic sensations the needs of the body and the state of the various organs are indicated.